I lean towards empiricism. We use empirical evidence to judge the effectiveness of drugs and the safety of our food. Yet we enact legislation based on wishful thinking, hope, and what feels right. Most of my standpoints stem from what has generally been shown to work -- though I also support social experiments like The Kansas Experiment.
Education is critical for the country's long-term health. Higher education is important but preschool, per dollar, is at least equally valuable. I support public funding of preschool, especially in lower-income settings. College education is also valuable, but I actually think it's overpriced and trade schools and apprenticeships ought to come back into vogue. In addition, much of the cost of college education appears to stem from the increase in "staff costs" such as health care, as teaching is a lower-leverage activity than factory production or software development.
Science education in particular is critical. There appears to be a growing antiscience movement seeded from the far right that jeopardizes the USA's future as a world leader in innovation.
Public statements made by politicians should be publicly fact-checked and advertised as such. False advertising is illegal for product advertisements - why is it not illegal for those running for office? It's disturbing how easily humans are swayed by information that is not true, even after it's been shown to be untrue. This is my biggest fear about our modern hyper-connected world.
Solving energy is critical for a sustainable world. We should continue investing in fusion just in case it works. I support the development and maintenance of a nuclear power infrastructure as it's cleaner than coal. It's a good idea to continue investment into renewable energy, as it's quite viable and hydrocarbon externalities are not priced into the market like they are with renewables.
I do think that free markets are effective at optimizing efficiency. However, they must be monitored every so often because corporations love to form monopolies and/or capture their regulators. Effective regulation can prevent monopoly formation and enable private markets to succeed. Consider the Swiss healthcare system and UK forcing British Telecom to open its wires.
If legislation has a very small effect, it should not be enacted.
Government systems should maximize transparency and checks and balances to mitigate the inevitable long-term drift towards corruption.
I believe that a solid and practical understanding of systems theory is one of western society's biggest blind spots. I might go as far as saying systems thinking is a new literacy. As our world becomes increasingly connected and interdependent, systems theory's relevance will increase.
Empathy is key. In general, people either have good intentions or believe they have good intentions (is there a difference?). Trying to understand their viewpoints is a good idea. (Though there's a point where you have to give up. Once, during a debate, my counterpart literally said "I'm sorry, I won't read that information. It's against my beliefs.")
The US Department of Defense is dramatically over-funded. It's totally not clear that meddling in the affairs of other countries has been beneficial to us, especially relative to the enormous cost. I'd love to see a portion of the DOD's budget redirected towards the NSF and other basic research organizations. Basic research pays long-term dividends.
I think it's worth preserving the environment. The environment is a broad concern over time and space, thus should be managed at a higher level than individuals, local communities, or corporations. The cost of environmental regulation is peanuts compared to the long-term benefits. [citation needed ;)]
All people should have equal basic rights. This includes people of any race, gender, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, age, or ability.
Immigration policy should be relaxed, especially to skilled immigrants.
We should strive to demonstrate, through our actions, character, wisdom, and culture, that we are a great nation. I'm not the most patriotic person, but there is value in striving to be great in competition with others.